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What is Microscopic Anatomy and Gross Anatomy?

 

The study of anatomy is in existence for about above 12000 years from ancient Greece. Microscopic anatomy and gross anatomy are its substantial parts. 

There are 3 broad areas of anatomy as a subject:

  • Human anatomy
  • Animal anatomy i.e. zootomy
  • Plant anatomy i.e. phytotomy

 

Diagram showing anatomies

 

What is Anatomy?

Anatomy is the branch of life science concerned with the identification and description of the structures of living things. This includes information about blood vessels, organs, the skeleton and nerves. Anatomy is the knowledge about the structure of the bodies of animals and humans. Gross anatomy includes the study of the main body parts by distribution and observation, and in its narrow sense only applies to the human body. "Gross anatomy" usually refers to the study of large-scale tissue that can be examined without the aid of magnifying devices, while microscopic anatomy refers to the study of ultra-small structures that can be examined and can be seen only with an optical microscope. 

Classification is the basis of all physical research. The Greeks made the first record of its use, and Theophrastus called dissection "anatomy", from ana temnein, which means "to cut".

Comparative Anatomy, another major branch of the field, compares the bodies of different species of animals to understand the changes they have undergone during evolution.

 

Anatomical Nomenclature

Scientific names for parts and parts of the human body are usually in Latin, for example, the name musculus biceps brachii refers to the biceps muscle of the upper arm. Some of these names were bequeathed to Europe by the ancient Greeks and Romans, and many others were coined by European physiologists beginning in the 16th century. 

Expansion of Knowledge health means the discovery of many parts of the body and the body, but there is no one type of name, and thousands of new names are added as the pharmacists follow their own fantasy, often expressing them in Latin form.

By the end of the 19th century, the confusion caused by the large number of names had become unbearable. Sometimes a medical dictionary lists up to 20 names, and more than 50,000 names are used throughout Europe.

 In 1887 the German Anatomical Society began the task of standardizing nomenclature and, with the help of other anatomical societies, a complete list of terms and names was approved in 1895, reducing the 50,000 names to 5,528. This list, Basle Nomina Anatomica was expanded later, in 1955, the sixth conference in Paris approved the translation known as Paris sitina Anatomica).

In 1998, this work was replaced by Terminologia Anatomica, which recognizes approximately 7,500 terms describing the major parts of the human body and is considered the international standard for human anatomical designations.

The Terminologia Anatomica, developed by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and the Federative Committee for Anatomical Terminology (later known as the International Federative Program for Anatomical Terminology), was put online in 2011.

Body anatomy

 


What is Microscopic Anatomy?

The new use of magnifying glasses and microscopes produced in the study of biology in the second half of the 17th century was the most important factor in the development of physical research. 

The first microscope allowed Marcello Malpighi to discover the structure of small capillaries connecting the arteries and the venous network, Robert Hooke first saw the small part of the plant that he called "cell" and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek while observing the nerve fibers and spam. From then on, the focus gradually shifted from discovering and understanding the structures visible to the naked eye to the smaller ones.

The use of the microscope to identify previously unknown units and features was pursued in the 18th century, but progress was slow until technological advances in the microscope itself began.

 

Diagram showing microscopic anatomy

In the 1830s slowly developing achromatic lenses. , the resolution of this apparatus has been greatly increased. These technological advances helped Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann realize in 1838-1839 that the cell is the basic structural unit of all living things.

The need for thin, non-transparent tissue samples for study under the light microscope has spurred the development of advanced magnification techniques, including machines called microtomes that can cut samples into critical sections.

In order to make the different details of these parts better, the materials used are used to create purple and different colors. Thin and narrow sections had become standard equipment for opticians by the end of the 19th century.

The field of cytology, which is the study of cells, and of histology, which is the study of tissue structure from the cellular level, both appeared in the 19th century with the data and methods of microscopic anatomy as a basis.

 

In the 20th century, physicists were eager to examine microscopic structures, because new technologies allowed them to understand better than the resolution of optical microscopes. These advances were made possible by the electron microscope, which inspired a great deal of research on subcellular structures from the 1950s and became the main tool of anatomical research. At the same time, the use of X-ray diffraction to study the structure of many types of molecules found in living things led to the creation of a unique new model of the human body.

 

 

What is Gross Anatomy?

This ancient discipline reached its peak between 1500 and 1850, after which its subject became established. None of the oldest civilizations in the world spread the human body, which is considered by most people as a superstitious fear and associated with the spirit of the dead soul. Belief in life after death and troubling uncertainty about the possibility of the resurrection prevented systematic study.

However, knowledge of the body was gained by healing wounds, assisting in childbirth, and fixing broken limbs. The field remained speculative rather than elucidated, however, until the achievement of the medical school in Alexandria and the most important person, Herophilus (flourishing in 300 BC), who exhumed human corpses and thus giving the appearance a great background for the first time. Herophilus made many important discoveries and was followed by his younger contemporary Erasistratus, who is sometimes considered the founder of physiology.

Diagram showing gross anatomy


In the second century AD, the Greek physician Galen collected and organized all the findings of Greek physiologists, including his own views on physiology and his findings on experimental medicine. Many of Galen's works became the undisputed authority on anatomy and medicine in Europe because they were the only ancient Greek texts that survived the Dark Ages in Arabic, then Latin versions later on.

Due to the church's prohibition against dissemination, developing European medicine relied on Galen's mixture of facts and fiction rather than looking specifically for his physical knowledge, although some distribution was allowed for educational purposes.

At the beginning of the 16th century, the artist Leonardo da Vinci made his own distinction, his beautiful and accurate drawings opened the way for the Flemish physician Andreas Vesalius to "restore" the science of the elements in his great book De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (1543 "Seven Books on the Structure of the Human Body"), which is a comprehensive manual and example of torture. As a professor at the University of Padua, Vesalius encouraged young scientists to accept traditional anatomy only after examining it for themselves, a more serious and questioning attitude that undermined Galen's authority.

From Vesalius' detailed description of the bones, muscles, blood vessels, nervous system, and digestive tract, his successors in Padua continued the study of the digestive glands and the urinary and reproductive systems.

William Harvey's discovery of blood circulation, for example, was based in part on Fabricius' description of venous valves.

Hieronymus Fabricius, Gabriello Fallopius, and Bartolomeo Eustachio were among the most important Italian anatomists, and their detailed studies led to important advances in related fields of physiology.


What are Human body systems?

 

Students of gross anatomy study about  major systems of the body.

Diagram showing human body systems



















There are 11 organ systems in  human body which we study in Anatomy:


  1.      Skeletal system
  2.      Muscular system
  3.      Lymphatic system
  4.      Respiratory system
  5.      Digestive system
  6.      Nervous system, including  central and autonomic systems
  7.      Endocrine system, which regulates hormone production
  8.      Cardiovascular system, including  heart
  9.      Urinary system
  10.      Reproductive system
  11.      Integumentary system, which includes  skin, hair, and nails, among or areas

 

All these systems all work together and are interdependent for functioning.




 

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