The key technology of scientifically raising commercial broilers
In recent years, in the practice of broiler breeding and production, we have always been serious about "adhering to one concept, following two principles, focusing on three-phase breeding, and solving three problems", so that the production efficiency of broiler breeding has been significantly improved. In order to effectively promote the efficient development of the broiler breeding industry, the relevant experience in broiler breeding is summarized as follows, for reference by peers in the broiler breeding industry.
Stick to a concept
The breeding concept of "all in and all out". That is to say, chicks of the same age are raised in the same chicken house, and they all appear on the same day when they are sold.
The advantage is that it is convenient to use uniform temperature and the same standard of feed, and it is convenient for uniform cleaning, cleaning and disinfection after leaving the field, and it is convenient to effectively prevent circulating infection. After fumigation and disinfection, the chicken house should be closed for a week before the next batch of chicks is adopted.
The "all-in-all-out" system has faster weight gain than the "continuous production" system, with less material consumption, lower mortality, and higher production efficiency.
Follow 2 principles
The principle of scientific chick selection Most farmers rely on outsourcing to raise broiler chicks, and the quality of the chicks purchased from the outside has a great impact on the effect of brooding and directly affects the level of breeding benefits.
In order to improve the survival rate of brooding, the quality control and selection must be strictly controlled when purchasing chicks to ensure reliable seed sources, pure breeds and healthy chicks.
Do not buy unhealthy chicks for a short time. When selecting chicks, in addition to paying attention to good breeds, it is also necessary to ensure that the breeders come from non-epidemic areas. The selection of high-quality chickens can be identified by the method of "one look, two touch, and three listening".
One look: Check whether the chick's feathers are neat, whether the beak, legs, wings, and toes are damaged, whether the movements are flexible, whether the eyes are normal, and whether the anus has white feces sticking.
In general, healthy chicks stand firm on both legs, have shiny feathers, and have clean anus without dirt.
Second touch: hold the chick in your hand, and touch the fatness, skeleton development, abdominal size and softness, yolk absorption and umbilical ring closure.
Generally healthy chicks are of moderate weight, feel fat in the hand, full, struggling vigorously, belly soft, medium size, well-closed, dry umbilical ring covered with down.
Three listening: that is, listening to the sound of the chicks to judge the health of the chicks. Generally healthy chicks have a loud and crisp cry.
The principle of male and female grouping The male and female chicks have different physiological foundations, so their requirements and responses to the living environment and nutritional conditions are also different.
The main manifestations are: the difference in growth rate, the body weight of male chicks is 13% higher than that of female chicks at 4 weeks of age, 20% higher at 6 weeks of age, and 27% higher at 8 weeks of age.
The ability to deposit fat is different, female chicks are higher than male chicks. Easy to deposit fat.
Different feed requirements; different feather growth rates, male chicks grow slowly, hens grow quickly
Show different severity of breast cysts, and different requirements for humidity.
The following feeding and management measures should be taken after the male and female chicks are divided into groups: The growth rate of the hens decreases relatively after 7 weeks of age, and the feed consumption increases sharply. Therefore, it should be sold on the weekend of 7.
The growth rate of males only declines after 9 weeks of age. Therefore, it should be cost-effective to sell at 9 weeks of age.
Male chicks can use high-protein diets more effectively, and the protein in the early diet should be increased to 24% to 25%. Female chicks cannot use high-protein diets, and will convert excess protein into fat in the body, which is very inappropriate.
Economical: If lysine is added to the feed, the male chicks respond quickly, and the feed efficiency is significantly improved, while the female chicks have little reaction effect.
If feeding chlortetracycline, the feed efficiency of the female chicks can be improved, while the male chicks have no response.
Due to the slow growth rate of male chicks feathers, a slightly higher temperature is required in the early stage. In the later stage, male chicks are more afraid of heat than female chicks, so the temperature should be slightly lower; because the rooster is heavier, the breast cyst is more serious, so it should be softer and thicker of bedding.
Pay attention to the 3 phase feeding
The breeding goal during the brooding period (0 weeks to 3 weeks) is to make the weight of each week age reach the target in time.
According to information, every 1 gram of body weight lost at the end of 1 week of age will reduce the weight by 10 grams to 15 grams at the time of slaughtering.
In order to make the body weight at the end of 1 week up to the standard, the first week should be fully fed and fed a high-energy and high-protein diet: The energy should not be less than 13.37 MJ/kg, and the protein should reach 22% to 23%. For every 600 broilers, 4 egg yolks, 100 grams of milk powder were added, and Subu 14 was used to drink water for 1 week.
For 2 to 3 weeks, the feeding should be appropriately restricted to prevent excess body weight, thereby reducing the incidence of ascites, sudden death and leg disease.
The protein in the feed during this period should not be less than 21%, and the energy should be kept at 12.46 MJ per kilogram~ 13.37 MJ.
The middle chicken stage (4 weeks to 6 weeks) is the skeleton forming stage of broilers. The focus of feeding is to provide a nutritionally balanced full-price diet. During this period, the protein in the feed should reach more than 19%, and the energy should be maintained at about 13.38 MJ/kg.
In the fattening period (6 weeks to slaughtering), in order to accelerate the weight gain, the energy concentration of the diet should be increased in the feed, and 1% to 5% of animal fat can be added to the diet, and the crude protein in the feed during this period can be reduced to 17% to 18%.
Solve 3 problems
The problem of breast cyst is the local inflammation that occurs under the skin of the breast of broilers, which is a common disease of broilers.
It is not contagious and does not affect growth, but affects the commodity value and grade of the carcass.
Effective preventive measures should be taken for its causes:
(1) Try to make the bedding dry and soft, replace the hardened and damp bedding in time, and maintain the proper thickness of the bedding.
(2) Reduce the time that broilers lie on the ground. Broilers spend 68% to 72% of the day in a prone state. When prone, about 60% of their body weight is supported by the chest. The chest is under pressure for a long time, the pressure is high, and the chest feathers are regenerated. It grows slowly and late, so it is easy to cause breast cysts. Therefore, the method of feeding less and more meals should be adopted to encourage broilers to stand up and eat.
(3) If the iron mesh is used for flat raising or cage raising, a layer of elastic plastic mesh should be added.
The problem of leg disease: As broiler performance improves, so does the severity of leg disease. There are various causes of leg diseases, which can be summarized into the following categories:
Hereditary leg diseases, such as tibial chondrodysplasia, spondylolisthesis, etc.
Infectious leg diseases, such as septic arthritis, chicken brain Myelitis, viral tenosynovitis, etc.
Nutritional leg disease, such as tendonitis, cartilage disease, vitamin B2 deficiency, etc.
Management of leg disease, such as rheumatic and traumatic leg disease
To prevent broiler chicken leg disease, the following measures should be taken:
(1) Improve epidemic prevention and health care measures to prevent the occurrence of infectious leg diseases.
(2) Ensure the reasonable supply of trace elements and vitamins, and avoid soft feet caused by lack of calcium and phosphorus; tendinopathy caused by lack of manganese, zinc, choline, niacin, folic acid, biotin and vitamin B6.
Curly toe disease caused by vitamin B2 deficiency.
(3) Strengthen management, ensure a reasonable living environment for broilers, and avoid foot diseases caused by excessive humidity of bedding, premature de-warming and improper methods of catching chickens.
The problem of ascites is a non-communicable disease that is associated with hypoxia, selenium deficiency, and long-term use of certain drugs.
What are the measures to control the occurrence of ascites in broilers?
(1) To improve the environmental ventilation conditions, especially in the case of high density, full attention should be paid to the ventilation of the chicken house.
(2) Prevent selenium and vitamin E deficiency in feed.
(3) When mild ascites is found, vitamin C should be added to the feed at a dosage of 0.05%. At the same time, a comprehensive inspection of the environment and feed should be carried out, and corresponding measures should be taken to control the occurrence of ascites. 8 to 18 days of age are only fed about 80% of the normal amount of feed, which can also prevent the occurrence of ascites.