Measures to Improve Hatchability and Chick Quality
The hatchery is the embodiment of the efficiency of breeding chickens, and it is also a window to the external image of the breeding farm. The task of hatching is to turn as many fertilized eggs into high-quality chicks as possible, with good economics. High hatching rate and good quality of chicks depend on our incubators' efforts in the management of all aspects of incubation. In practice, through strict management of details and strengthening the control of incubation conditions, good incubation results have been achieved.
1. Egg source
Healthy breeders are the basis for obtaining high-quality chicks, and the health of breeders directly affects the quality of eggs and chicks.
Only by feeding the breeder flocks with full-price rations, timely immunization, and careful management, can the breeders be kept in good health.
2. Selection and preservation of eggs
2.1 Egg selection Even the eggs produced by good and healthy breeding eggs are not suitable for hatching and should be selected.
Eggs should be clean and pollution-free. The egg weight is between 52-68g, the egg shape index is 0.72-0.75, and the specific gravity is about 1.08.
Exclude preserved eggs, sand-preserved eggs, wrinkled eggs, broken eggs, cracked eggs, etc.
The color of the eggshell should match requirements of this species.
2.2 Egg preservation Generally, it is advisable to store 5-7D eggs, preferably not more than one week. In particular, aging eggs should be kept as short as possible.
Shots should be kept in an egg storehouse with insulation and an air conditioner, and the temperature in the storehouse can be adjusted at any time.
The temperature is 13-18°C (the upper limit of temperature is used for short time, and the lower limit is used for long time).
The relative temperature is kept at 75%-80% (which can not only significantly reduce the evaporation of water in the egg, but also prevent the growth of mold), and keep the egg Good ventilation of the library.
3. Control of incubation conditions
3.1 Temperature Temperature is an important factor for hatching.
In actual production, there are two temperature application schemes:
- Constant temperature
- Variable temperature
The constant temperature is 1-19d37.8℃, 20-21d36.5-37.2℃.
The variable temperature incubation adopts the temperature method of high front and low temperature, such as 1-4d38.2℃, 5-7d38.0℃, 8-12d37. 8℃, 13-15d37.6℃, 16-19d37.4℃, 20-21d36.5-37.2℃.
The difference between the two methods is that the cooling method must be the incubation time of the whole batch, which meets the requirements of the embryo egg on the temperature before high and low.
The constant temperature method is suitable for the batch incubation method of tunnel incubator and box machine, which can save electricity.
Some people believe that the cooling method is better than the constant temperature method. For eggs in the early stage of laying eggs, the incubation temperature should be 0.15°C higher or hatched 6-8 hours earlier. 20-21d37℃.
In the mid-laying period (35-50 weeks), the eggs have excellent physical and chemical properties, 37.8℃ for hatching, 36.5-37.1℃ for hatching, and the incubation period is exactly 21d.
In the later stage of laying (after 50 weeks), try to minimize the storage time , 4-6h in advance, the incubation temperature is 0.1 ℃ lower, and the hatching temperature is about 37.2 ℃. Whether the temperature is appropriate can be checked by "watching the tire and applying the temperature".
3.2 With suitable humidity, the embryos are heated evenly in the early stage, and the chicks are hatched by heat dissipation and shell pecking in the later stage. Generally speaking, the humidity in the setter is 50%-60%, and the humidity in the hatcher is 65%-75%.
For eggs in the early stage of laying eggs, reduce the hatching humidity to 3%-5% for 1-19d, and 70% for 20-21d.
Use normal humidity in the middle stage of laying; 21d hatching humidity should be 65%-70%.
Check whether the humidity is suitable, and measure the weight loss of eggs during incubation to be 11%-13.5%.
3.3 Ventilation embryos must continuously exchange gas with the outside world during the entire development process.
Ventilation can provide the oxygen needed for embryo development, discharge carbon dioxide, make the temperature in the incubator uniform, and dissipate waste heat.
Our approach can be 1-3d "off", 4-12d "small", 13-17d "medium", and after 18d open to "maximum" until the end, but the large amount of ventilation in the early stage will not improve the hatching rate, only Power will be wasted.
4. Control of environmental conditions
In order to keep the temperature and humidity of the incubator in an ideal and stable state, there must be an ideal and stable temperature, humidity, ventilation and other external conditions.
Conditional hatcheries should install air conditioners and humidifiers in the hatching hall, so that the ambient temperature is between 23-28°C and the humidity is maintained at 55%-70%.
If funds are tight and it is difficult to buy expensive equipment, you can build a stove or install a heater in the hatchery in the cold winter season, and the temperature setting should only be 0.2°C higher than normal.
If the incubator cannot raise the temperature, you can install a heating tube at the air inlet to preheat the cold air, or put a heating device in the incubator to "help" heat, and at the same time ensure the sealing of the incubator.
If the hatcher can't raise the temperature after it is placed in the tray, you can first block the air inlet by 2/3, and then tear off the baffle when the temperature rises, but the time of the air baffle should not exceed 4 hours.
In short, when the room temperature is low, take measures to let the temperature rise to the set value as soon as possible.
In the hot season, more fans and wet curtains can be installed in the hatching hall to increase ventilation and use wet curtains to cool down.
For the box-type machine, do not fully load when incubating and drop the tray, and lay fewer eggs to reduce the occurrence of over-temperature phenomenon in the later incubation process.
When placing the trays, put an empty tray every four trays, which is conducive to ventilation and heat dissipation of the chicks.
5. Strict disinfection procedures and sanitation and epidemic prevention system
5.1 The degree of disinfection of eggs After the eggs are laid, they will be more or less polluted, and many bacteria will be attached to the eggshell. With the passage of time, the number of bacteria increases rapidly, and some bacteria enter the shell through the eggshell membrane and contaminate the eggs. Therefore, the eggs must be carefully sterilized. And the sooner the better.
There are many methods for sterilizing hatching eggs, but the most effective and most commonly used method is formaldehyde fumigation.
What is a typical disinfection procedure of chicken house?
Here is a brief description of a typical disinfection procedure:
After the eggs are produced, the first disinfection is carried out in the chicken house, and the eggs are transported to the hatchery for spray disinfection on the surface of the egg box.
Wash your hands with disinfectant before picking eggs. If the surface of the eggs is not clean, fumigate three times the amount in the fumigation cabinet now, and put them into the egg storehouse after sterilizing for 30 minutes.
If the eggs are clean, they can be directly returned to the warehouse (the egg selection room and the egg warehouse should be cleaned, mopped and disinfected with bacteria-poisoning spray every day); when the eggs are hatched, the egg cart and the eggs are sprayed and disinfected together and then pushed into the incubator.
After heating, carry out egg-laying disinfection (fumigation and disinfection with twice the amount of formaldehyde, avoiding the embryo age of 24-96h) for 30 minutes; when laying eggs, operators need to wash their hands with disinfectant, and after dropping, perform double-volume fumigation and disinfection for 30 minutes.
About 20 days after hatching, when 5% of the chicks peck the shell, put a paper egg tray on each side of the hatcher into formalin to volatilize naturally, the dosage is 6-7ml/m3, put it every 4 hours, 2 hours before picking.
Double the amount of formaldehyde for fumigation and disinfection for 20min.
5.2 Hygiene and Epidemic Prevention System
When entering the hatchery, you must take a bath and replace the sterilized isolation gown.
Foreign objects and utensils must be thoroughly sterilized before entering the factory area.
When entering the hatchery, staff step on the disinfection pool, and enter through the disinfection room after changing clothes and shoes. Incubation room, to prevent outsiders from visiting.
The hatching egg tray, hatcher, chicken box and machine should be strictly washed and disinfected before they can be used again.
6. Strengthen personnel management
6.1 Establish various rules and regulations, formulate reasonable contracting plans and incubation assessment indicators, with a clear division of labor, responsibilities to people, clear rewards and punishments, and fully mobilize the enthusiasm of each employee.
6.2 Efforts to improve the quality of employees is the basis for ensuring product quality. When the quality of personnel is improved and the sense of responsibility is strengthened, product quality can be guaranteed.
6.3 Regular meetings (once a week) summarize the work, affirm the achievements, improve the deficiencies, and supervise and inspect the work of employees in a timely manner.
7. Strengthen the technical processing level of chicks and improve product quality
7.1 After the chicks are picked up from the hatcher, the male and female chicks are firstly identified, and the male and female chicks are separated.
The identification accuracy rate is required to be over 98%, and according to the chick's vitality, mental state, body shape, yolk absorption and umbilical cord healing
The chicks are carefully selected.
7.2 The use of Marek vaccine should be strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions for use, the quality of injection should be guaranteed during operation, and leakage of injection should be strictly prevented.
7.3 Cut the crown and broken toes, pay attention to hemostasis when cutting the toes, and prevent scalding the soles of the chicks.
7.4 When packing and sending chickens, it should be ensured that the series and quantity are accurate. In actual production, the number of the staff should be marked on the chick box to enhance the staff's sense of responsibility and ensure the quality of work.
Feeding and management of big chickens in winter and spring
Medium and large chickens generally refer to flocks after 30 days of age. After the arduous brooding stage, the farmers are relieved and often relax the feeding and management of the flocks. At this time, the flocks are often the most prone to problems. The reasons are:
1. The raising households relax mentally and relax the heat preservation work.
2. As the age of the chicken increases, the density increases, and the feces increase, so that the bacteria and viruses inside and outside the house increase.
Practice has proved that if the medium and large chickens are not well insulated, it is easy to cause increased respiratory diseases, affect the growth of chickens, and increase the cost of medicines.
Feed consumption increased and feed conversion ratio decreased. Therefore, attention should be paid to the feeding and management of medium and large chickens, specifically:
1. Insulation work
In winter and spring, not only is it cold, but also the temperature difference between day and night is large.
1. Coal stoves and insulation sheds cannot be removed casually.
2. When encountering a cold wave, increase the coal stove, and increase the amount of coal burning in the cold night.
3. When necessary, the bar can be properly returned at night to reduce the thermal insulation space.
4. Pay attention to weather changes and the temperature difference between day and night, close the windows in time, and surround the insulation shed.
2. Strengthen litter management. Keep the litter dry, clean and thick.
3. Pay attention to the cleaning and disinfection work inside and outside the chicken coop, including the cleaning and disinfection of drinking fountains.
Daily cleaning and disinfection inside and outside the chicken coop.
You can bring chickens for disinfection at noon on sunny days.
4. After the rooster is on the market, the hen should not expand the hen immediately. On the one hand, thoroughly clean and sterilize the rooster house and lay good bedding.
On the other hand, when the weather is good, the barn should be pre-warmed before expanding the barn.
5. When the temperature is appropriate, the chickens can be properly released from the playground.
The work of quality chicken brooding
1. Make a seedling plan. The content of the plan should include the breed, quantity, seedling time, required chicken houses and equipment, breeders, feed, additives, drugs, vaccines, water and electricity, and appropriate working capital.
2. Do the preparatory work before hatching. Before entering the seedlings, the chicken house and all utensils should be rinsed and disinfected repeatedly, and then again pay attention to check whether all equipment and utensils are fully prepared, and pre-warm the chicken house about 24 hours before the plan to enter the chick, so that the temperature of the chicken house reaches 28 ℃.
Around, the temperature under the insulation umbrella or on the ground of the fire pit reaches 32-35°C. It is hot in summer, so there is no need to preheat in advance.
Before entering chicks, sufficient chick feed should be prepared according to the number of chickens raised, and vaccines and preventive drugs that need to be vaccinated during brooding should be prepared, such as water-soluble multivitamins (Luowei 328, Subu 14, etc.), sugar, antibiotics (such as enrofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, etc.) and anticoccidial drugs (such as gram ball powder, ball ampere, volt ball, etc.).
3. Pick up the chicks. Healthy chicks should be selected for feeding, and the criteria are: lively spirit, bright eyes, pure and uniform coat color, neat and tidy fur, well-shrunken umbilicus, no deformity or defect in appearance, clean around the anus, standing on both feet and walking normally.
In the hand, it is full and struggling, and the weight reaches the corresponding breed standard.
4. Pay attention to the drinking water and food of the chicks. Put the selected chicks into the brooding house, let them rest for a while, and feed 1/10,000 potassium permanganate water 2 hours before eating (to help meconium discharge and clean up the stomach).
After supplying 3% to 5% sugar water, water-soluble multi-dimensional and antibiotic drugs (such as enrofloxacin or doxycycline or erythromycin, etc.) can also be added to the drinking water to reduce stress response and improve chick resistance. At the same time, pay attention to whether the drinking position is uniform and sufficient (the side length of each chick drinking fountain is 1.5-2.0 cm), and whether the height is moderate.
After drinking water, start feeding (usually require 24-36 hours to start food, no more than 48 hours at the latest), you can sprinkle chick material on kraft paper or shallow plate (some use fine corn flour instead of chicks on the first day of feeding) Feed), feed 5 to 6 times a day, and have enough light to stimulate appetite. Do eat freely, and add a small amount frequently.
On the 3rd to 4th day, the chicken feeder can be used for feeding, and the kraft paper is gradually removed. The side length of each chicken feed trough should be 2.5 to 5 cm. Pay attention to cleaning and sterilizing drinking fountains every day, and changing enough fresh drinking water in time.
5. Do a good job in raising chicks. In the brooding stage, feed is added 5 to 6 times a day, and the amount added each time is smaller to allow the chickens to eat cleanly. This can cause chickens to grab food and stimulate appetite.
Beak cutting at 6 to 10 days of age. Use a soldering iron or a special beak cutting machine to cut off 1/2 of the upper beak and 1/3 of the lower beak to prevent pecking and reduce feed waste.
It is best to use water-soluble multi-dimensional and antibiotic drugs to drink water within two or three days before and after beak cutting to reduce stress response.
After 20 days of age, 500 grams of clean fine sand is supplied to every 100 chickens every week to enhance the digestive function of chickens and stimulate appetite. At the same time, do a good job of immunization during the brooding period. When the chicks are raised to 25 to 40 days old, they should be transferred to the middle chicken house.