Corona Virus Diagnosis Prevention Cure Treatment Classification Coronavirus
Safety Science and Engineering (urban safety, occupational health, mine safety, emergency management and rescue)
Recently, pneumonia caused by the new coronavirus has attracted widespread attention. Through Asian news reports, public account articles, and doctors and other channels to understand this matter, the source and spread of the new coronavirus are now known.
The channels and how to prevent them were sorted out, with a view to doing their modest efforts to prevent new pneumonia.
Coronaviruses are systematically classified as Coronaviridae (Coronaviridae). Coronavirus is a positive-stranded single-stranded RNA virus with an envelope of about 80 to 120 nm in diameter.
Its genetic material is the largest of all RNA viruses and only infects humans, mice, pigs, cats, dogs, and birds. vertebrate.
A variant of coronavirus is the pathogen that causes atypical pneumonia and belongs to the RNA virus. Coronavirus was first isolated from chickens in 1937. The diameter of the virus particles is 60-200nm, with an average diameter of 100nm. It is spherical or oval and has polymorphism.
The virus has an envelope, and there are spinous processes on the envelope. The entire virus looks like a corona, and the spinous processes of different coronaviruses are significantly different. Tubular inclusions are sometimes seen in coronavirus-infected cells.
How to effectively prevent Wuhan Coronavirus? How to prevent Wuhan pneumonia effectively?
On January 20, 2020, Academician Gao Fu, a member of the high-level expert group of the National Health Commission, said that the new coronavirus in 2019 is the seventh known coronavirus.
Coronavirus characteristics: viruses are divided into DNA viruses and RNA viruses, and coronaviruses are RNA viruses. RNA virus (RNA virus) is also called RNA virus.
Plant viruses, with few exceptions (such as Caulif-lower mosaic virus), are almost always RNA viruses. The virus has 2 modes of replication: RNA self-replication and reverse transcription.
During the replication of viral RNA, the activity of the enzyme for the error repair mechanism is very low, almost no, so it mutates quickly. The vaccine is developed based on the virus's fixed genes or proteins, so RNA virus vaccines are difficult to develop.
Compared with DNA viruses, RNA viruses are more susceptible to disease, more deadly to hosts, and more susceptible to mutation. Therefore, there are more types, and it is more difficult to develop effective vaccines and difficult to prevent. But RNA viruses are generally less resistant than DNA viruses, and cure is easier.
Common RNA viruses are: AIDS virus (retrovirus), hepatitis C virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, all influenza viruses, rhinovirus, polio virus, coxsackie virus, dengue virus, rotavirus, tobacco mosaic virus, SARS virus, MERS virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus, a small number of phages (most phages are DNA viruses), etc.
II. The transmission channels of coronavirus
Academician Zhong Nanshan confirmed that the transmission of the new coronavirus was transmitted from person to person.
There are three main ways of transmitting coronavirus, as follows:
1. Oral fluid
Coronavirus can be transmitted through fluid in the mouth. When normal people and patients infected with coronavirus have had oral fluid contact, they may become infected with coronavirus.
Droplets are also one of the modes of transmission of coronavirus. Sometimes on the subway and in public spaces, a person infected with the coronavirus may spread the virus through a sneeze.
3. Contact Transmission
Corona viruses can also be transmitted if normal people have too close contact with patients with coronaviruses.
How to prevent Corona effectively?
1. Avoid contact
Avoid contact with wild animals (including game), birds and their droppings
2. Maintain good personal hygiene
Avoid touching the eyes, mouth, and nasal cavity with your hands (please wash your hands with hand sanitizer before contacting).
Always keep your hands clean and wash your hands frequently, especially when touching the eyes, mouth, and nose.
After touching public area equipment, such as stairs handrails, elevator lift buttons, public transportation handrails. Try to wash your hands according to the seven-step hand-washing method.
Wash your hands with running water. Use hand soap or soap when washing your hands.
Cover your mouth and nose with tissue paper when sneezing or coughing. Proper cleaning of the nasal cavity can effectively prevent a cold.
3. Maintain good environmental hygiene
Regular ventilation to ensure indoor air circulation thoroughly clean the home at least once every two weeks.
4. Maintain a healthy lifestyle and rest habits
Strengthen physical exercise, enhance physical fitness, smoke less, try not to smoke, avoid drinking, reduce staying up late, and strengthen physical resistance.
5. Regular Treatment
If you have fever, respiratory infection symptoms such as cough, sneeze, sore throat, please go to a regular hospital in time. Reduce the number of times to crowded places.
6. Wear Mask
The first line of defense for your body is mask. If you need to go out, please wear a mask (N95 mask or surgical mask)
7. Good Attitude
Maintain a good attitude and a comfortable mood, and have the confidence to win this battle! We defeated SARS and we can win this battle as well.
Believe that there is an extremely powerful country behind us, and we can overcome disasters with all our will.
Introduction of Coronavirus protective equipment
What is N95 mask?
The N95 mask is one of nine anti-particulate masks certified by NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health).
"N" means unsuitable for oily particles (oil fume produced by cooking is oily particles, and droplets produced by people speaking or coughing are not oily).
"95" means filtering under the test conditions specified by the NIOSH standard The efficiency reaches 95%. N95 is not a specific product name. As long as the product meets the N95 standard and passes the NIOSH review, it can be called a "N95 mask".
What is Medical Surgical Mask?
Medical surgical masks are generally used in high-demand environments such as medical clinics, laboratories, and operating rooms, and are used by medical staff when they work.
The safety factor is relatively high, and the resistance to bacteria and viruses is strong. Medical surgical masks can also be used to prevent flu.
What is the new coronavirus? Is there a case in China?
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are named for the morphology of the virus, which looks similar to a crown under an electron microscope.
The new coronavirus is a new coronavirus strain that has never been found in humans before. There are related cases in China.
Since December 2019, many unexplained cases of viral pneumonia have been found in Wuhan City, Hubei Province. On January 8, 2020, a new coronavirus was initially identified as the pathogen of the epidemic.
In addition to the new coronaviruses found this time, there are six more known coronaviruses that infect humans.
Four of them are more common in the population and have lower pathogenicity, generally causing only mild respiratory symptoms similar to the common cold.
The other two are the SARS coronavirus and MERS coronavirus that we are familiar with.
As of 22:00 on January 19, 2020, Wuhan has reported 198 cases of pneumonia caused by new coronavirus infection, 25 cases have been cured and discharged, and 3 cases have died.
On January 20, 170 cases were still being treated in the hospital, of which 126 cases were mild, 35 cases were severe, and 9 cases were critically ill. They were all treated in isolation at designated medical institutions in Wuhan.
Two patients in Daxing District of Beijing and one patient in Guangdong Province have been treated in isolation at designated hospitals and their condition is stable.
Extended information on Corona
What is the self-protection against new coronavirus?
Standard recommendations for reducing exposure and reducing the spread of a range of diseases include maintaining basic hand and respiratory hygiene, maintaining safe eating habits, and avoiding as much as possible being close to anyone who shows symptoms of respiratory diseases such as coughing and sneezing contact.
At present, it is in the season of high incidence of infectious diseases in winter and spring. Citizens should increase their awareness of hygiene and health, strengthen exercise, work regularly, and improve their immunity.
Pay attention to maintaining indoor air circulation, avoiding closed, airless public places and crowded places, and wear masks if necessary.
After going home, wash your hands and nose in time. If you have fever and other symptoms of respiratory infections, especially persistent fever, go to a medical institution in time.
What is good for patients with new coronavirus infection?
1. The diet should be light and eat easily digestible foods.
2. Drink plenty of water.
3. Eat more fresh fruits and vegetables.
What is bad for patients with new coronavirus infection?
Do not eat spicy, greasy, hot food.
prevention? It is enough to pay attention usually, there are no cases in China, no need to be nervous.
How to prevent new coronavirus?
According to the Ministry of Health, the transmission of coronavirus is similar to that of respiratory infections such as influenza, which can be caused by coughing and sneezing.
However, as of now, the transmission route of this new coronavirus is not clear. There is no evidence that the disease is zoonotic, and there is no vaccine against the virus.
It is a coronavirus and atypical pneumonia virus. Infected people often develop severe respiratory syndromes with acute renal failure.
The emergence of germs is scary, but it is unavoidable. Therefore, what we can do is to improve the body's immunity and prevent the invasion of germs.
In addition to enhancing physical fitness in daily life, we can also use the diet to adjust and supplement Vitamins like King Scherkang to increase resistance.
Fortunately, there is no case of the new coronavirus in China.
Recently, a Korean virus carrier came to Guangdong, China. Has anyone seen it?
The Guangdong Provincial Health and Family Planning Commission reported that the first suspected case of imported Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (M E R S) occurred in Guangdong Province.
The suspected case was a South Korean man who entered Hong Kong city of Huizhou via Hong Kong and had fever symptoms. His father and sister were diagnosed with infection in South Korea.
At present, the suspected case has been transferred to the hospital for isolation and treatment, and 35 of his close contacts in Huizhou are also in isolation. There is no abnormality at present. Suspected case samples have also been sent to the National Center for Disease Control and Testing.
The reporter learned from the Provincial Health and Family Planning Commission that at 10 pm on May 27, the World Health Organization notified that a close contact of a confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in South Korea entered Hong Kong, Huizhou, Guangdong Province, and had fever symptoms.
It is understood that the Korean man had discomfort on May 21 and his body temperature reached 38.7 ° C on the 25th. On the 26th, we took the flight O Z723 to Hong Kong at 12:50 and arrived at Huizhou via Shenzhen Shatoujiao Port.
The Provincial Health and Family Planning Commission requested Huizhou to verify immediately based on the information notified by WHO. The Huizhou City Health and Family Planning Department transferred the South Korean man to a designated hospital for isolation and treatment in the early hours of yesterday morning, and isolated his close contacts for observation in situ.
Currently, the Korean man has developed fever and other symptoms. Thirty-five close contacts have been searched, and no abnormalities have occurred for the time being.
At 1 am yesterday, the Provincial Health and Family Planning Commission also sent an expert team to the scene in Huizhou to carry out epidemiological investigations and sampling. The samples were sent to the Provincial Disease Control Center for testing on the morning of the 28th.
According to Xinhua News Agency, as of 7pm last night, there have been 7 cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in South Korea.
According to the World Health Organization’s report on May 25, from September 2012 to May 25, 2015, a total of 1,139 confirmed cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome were reported in 24 countries worldwide, of which 431 died.
What kind of disease is MERS?
Less infectious than SARS but with a higher case fatality rate, and has limited human-to-human transmission capacity.
Zhong Nanshan, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, explained to reporters in the south that the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome is an acute and severe respiratory disease caused by a new type of coronavirus infection.
This virus is a coronavirus similar to the SARS virus that ravaged China in 2003. What deserves special attention is that it causes a high mortality rate of 40%. And there is no vaccine or drug treatment available for this disease.
"His two family members have been diagnosed, and he should not have come out at this time." Zhong Nanshan said that although the disease does not have absolute evidence of continuous transmission from people like SARS, its transmission has been confirmed between relatives.
At present, the samples have been sent to the National Center for Disease Control and Prevention. "But from the Guangdong test, we can initially consider that he is a Middle East respiratory syndrome." Zhong Nanshan said, "Although no diagnosis has been confirmed, it needs to be highly vigilant."
According to the Xinhua News Agency, starting in the second half of 2012, Saudi Arabia was the first to have sporadic patients with acute respiratory syndrome accompanied by renal failure.
Pathogen testing showed that these patients were infected with a new virus. It is the same coronavirus as the well-known SARS virus, but it is of a different type and is less infectious than SARS.
Since then, confirmed cases of the disease have been found in Jordan, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Tunisia, and even France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
The World Health Organization named this new coronavirus "Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus" based on the recommendations of the International Virus Classification Commission.
Up to now, the virus has caused more than 1,000 people to die, and more than 400 people have died. The vast majority of the deaths are located in Saudi Arabia.
What are the symptoms of Middle East respiratory syndrome?
Typical symptoms include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Examinations often reveal pneumonia and gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea. Severe cases can lead to respiratory failure, and in some cases organ failure, especially renal failure and septic shock.
People with low immunity, the elderly and people with chronic diseases are more likely to develop severe illness.
How do humans get this coronavirus?
The virus exists in the air around the diseased camel for a short period of time, and whether it can spread through the air needs further research.
It is currently known that although many people infected with the virus did not have direct contact with camels, they have either traveled to the Middle East before they became ill, or had close contact with patients traveling to the Middle East.
This new coronavirus already has limited human-to-human transmission capacity, but there is no evidence that the virus has sustained human-to-human transmission.
What is the source of corona virus?
According to known research, the source host for this virus is the unimodal camel in the Middle East. The nostrils of the sick camels raised by the Saudis had been infected and died.
The virus infected by this patient is completely identical to the gene fragments of the new coronavirus found in air samples from the affected camel and camel shed. But the exact source of the infection is not entirely clear.
How can individuals prevent and protect from Coronavirus?
There are no specific drugs or vaccines against this new coronavirus. Experts advise travellers in the Middle East to avoid contact with sick camels; people who enter camel sheds, related farms or markets should wash their hands before and after; camel milk should be heated and consumed, and camel meat should be cooked before eating.
Two family members confirmed in South Korea, he still insists on coming to China for business
Arrive Hong Kong on the Asiana flight OZ723 on the 26th of this month, and then take a direct bus from Hong Kong to enter.
Why did the South Korean man still enter Hong Kong via South Korea after suffering discomfort?
During the entry process, which close contacts did you have? According to a report by Xinhua News Agency and a report from the Guangdong and Hong Kong Health and Disease Control Department, a reporter from Nandu organized the man's detailed journey from South Korea to Huizhou.
What does MERS mean?
MERS virus is a new type of coronavirus that has been named MERS (Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus). Most cases of MERS virus infection occur in Saudi Arabia.
What are the main differences between corona viruses?
The difference between corona virus and new corona virus lies in virus type, clinical characteristics, route of infection, and severity of disease caused.
1. Different types of viruses
Corona viruses are a large family of viruses that are named for the morphology of the virus, which looks similar to a crown under an electron microscope.
2. Infect only vertebrates
Corona virus has so far been found to infect only vertebrates and can cause human and animal respiratory, digestive, and nervous system diseases such as colds and more serious diseases such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).
The new corona virus is a new corona virus strain that has never been found in humans before. In addition to the new corona viruses found this time, there are six more known corona viruses that infect humans.
3. Have lower pathogenicity
Four of them are more common in the population and have lower pathogenicity, generally causing only mild respiratory symptoms similar to the common cold. The other two are the SARS corona virus and MERS corona virus that we are familiar with.
4. The severity of the illness caused
Clinically, most corona viruses cause mild and self-healing diseases, but a few may have neurological complications.
The illness caused by the new corona virus is more serious. A total of 41 cases of pneumonitis with new corona virus infection have been reported in Wuhan, 7 cases have been cured, 6 cases have been cured, 1 case has died, and the remaining patients are in stable condition. All patients received isolation treatment at designated medical institutions in Wuhan.
Self introduction of New Coronavirus
Hello everyone, I am a new type of virus, the name is new coronavirus, abbreviated as 2019-nCoV. I have been unknown in animals before. Before the Spring Festival in 2019, I don’t know why. After humans discovered it, I had the current name. I didn’t even have a name before, but this time I will become famous and it will be recorded in human history forever. Now I introduce my own characteristics.
The first is my birthplace. At present I don't know exactly where I came from. Many people are helping me find my ancestral home, but the first time I was found was in the South China Seafood Market in Wuhan, Hubei, China. I am from the coronavirus family.
I am a member of the beta genus coronavirus. Currently, it is the seventh human coronavirus that has been found in humans. Of course, there should be many siblings that have not been found.
At present, human scientists are constantly researching me, and they have found that I and the bat SARS-like coronavirus are 85% similar, which means that we may come from the same ancestor, and may have been a family before, so many people think that I was He lived on a bat. But I did not come to humans directly from bats.
During this period, I may have spent some time in wild animals such as pangolins and snakes. How did it come to the human body?
I am also very troubled, but I believe that human scientists will definitely help me find the answer.
The reason why I received everyone's close attention is that when I came to humans, I could spread it widely among humans, so that people who had contacted me had pneumonia, and even some humans progressed rapidly and eventually died. People who almost touch me will not be spared. I mainly spread through the respiratory tract.
Of course, it can also spread through contact. I can exist in the air or on the surface of an object. Humans can infect by inhaling the air that contains me or contacting an object that I have.
After reaching the human body, my first attack is the human respiratory tract. I can quickly reach the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, and then fuse my information with the information in the cells.
With the help of human cell resources, I continuously mass-produce myself. In the end, our virus team is getting stronger and stronger, causing the destruction of human lung tissues and eventually developing pneumonia.
After human infection, some flu symptoms such as fever, cough, sputum, and general weakness will appear. After a few days, chest tightness, shortness of breath, and shortness of breath will occur, and severe cases will be life-threatening.
Changes of lung imaging after neocoronavirus infection
" I have a lot of weaknesses myself. I am afraid of ultraviolet rays and heat. Ether, 75% alcohol, chlorine disinfectant, peracetic acid, and chloroform will kill me, but chlorhexidine does not work well for me.
My transmission speed is very fast. Now I have been classified as a Class B infectious disease. Human beings have done a lot of prevention work against my weaknesses, but I am also constantly learning and changing. We can stay in the body for a long period of time, humans don't have to get sick, he can take me anywhere, and then I can find a lot of new hosts. But what bothers me is that I see fewer and fewer people now."
The above are some of my life trajectories and advantages and disadvantages. I hope everyone can understand me better. We shouldn't be together for too long, the weather is starting to get hot, humans are doing a good job of defending me, and I should be home soon.
New virus crowns are cold and hot, high in April before October
At 9 o'clock tonight, Hubei New Crown Pneumonia Epidemic Prevention and Control Headquarters held 19 press conferences to highlight new crown pneumonia epidemic prevention and control research and related cases.
Controlled by a scientific research team composed of a member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and the New Crown Pneumonia Epidemic Prevention Expert, Professor Chen Huanchun of Hubei Province, Central China Agricultural University introduced that the earlier the onset in Hubei, the number of infections.
There are many speculations about the current epidemic and it is reasonable. Many people worry that there is some truth. With the exception of Hubei in other provinces, outbreak control may be better.
The virus likes coldness and is afraid of heat. Viruses, the more favorable the lower the temperature, the higher the temperature the more unfavorable.
However, from the onset of the disease, from the second year of October to the first year of April, there is a high incidence of virus infection in humans and animals. According to my personal judgment, the Hubei epidemic situation is still in a certain period of high incidence.
But now, as our understanding of the disease gets worse, we also have a way to figure out the virus. Elimination of the virus is mainly to eliminate the source of infection, cut off the route of transmission, and protect vulnerable groups.
But before the successful development of vaccines and drugs, the key is to eliminate the source of infection and cut off the route of transmission.
It is best to take control of infectious diseases that have taken such quarantine measures in place. In addition, each person helps himself and becomes himself to control the local disease.
Recently, the pneumonia epidemic of new coronavirus infection is severe. The Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention has released the "Guidelines for the Response to Pneumonia of New Coronavirus Infection", which is an interactive cartoon with authoritative content and easy to understand and use.
New coronavirus-infected pneumonia is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a new coronavirus infection. Respiratory infectious diseases have some common characteristics in terms of prevention and control measures.
The social media public account of Suqian Disease Control Center will increase the publicity of knowledge on prevention and control of common respiratory infectious diseases in winter and spring in December 2019, and in January 2020 will promote a number of new coronavirus-infected pneumonia-related science popularization information, focusing on the promotion of new Key points for pneumonia prevention of coronavirus infection.
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